Abstract - floating paragraph which summarizes the findings of the study.
Introduction - the first part of the paper which summarizes the previous research and publications on the topic. Typically ends with the research questions.
Method - you can find the samples, sample size, variables, measures (like surveys), demographics, various statistical tests used in the study (and more).
Results - this is where the results of the study are located. It is typically dense, not written for a general audience.
Discussion/Conclusion - where the results are repeated and discussed in more general language. This is a great place to start reading and where the most quotable lines will be for a research paper.
References - all the articles the authors' used and talked about in the article. This is a great place to find other articles on the same topic.