What type of paper are you writing? Your assignment likely has specific instructions about how you should approach your topic.
Purdue University's Online Writing Lab gives these examples:
You may be using a combination of these results; for example, you might narrate and then analyze an event. Make sure you understand your assignment!
Ask yourself questions about your topic to define your focus as much as possible. You can start with the five Ws and an H:
Who? Are you writing about adults, children, adolescents? Men, women, transgender?
Where? If possible, focus on a particular place. The West Coast U.S., urban areas of eastern Canada, etc. Example: The economic development of Ottawa’s Westboro Village
When? What time period are you looking at? The smaller the time period, the more narrow the focus. You can focus on the 1920s, the 13th century, the second half of the 20th century, etc. Example: Cultural genocide during World War I.
What? What aspect of the topic will you research? Psychological, ethical, political? Are you interested in the history of your topic? Choose one aspect to research.
Why? Why is this topic important? Why are you interested?
How? How does this topic relate to you? To your audience?
Check out these great online databases to learn about different aspects of controversial topics.